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Table 1 Groups of simulation experiments for speech acquisition

From: Associative learning and self-organization as basic principles for simulating speech acquisition, speech production, and speech perception

Group name Specification of training items Number of training items Size of SOM Phonetic features learned Published
Protovocalic babbling (prelinguistic) Variation of tongue position 1076 15 × 15 Front-back; low-high; [44]
Protoconsonantal babbling (prelinguistic) Variation of initial closure: labial, apical, or dorsal 279 15 × 15 Place of articulation; [44, 47]
Vowel imitation (part of model language) 5 vowels (V): /i, e, a, o, u/ 500 15 × 15 Front-back; low-high; [44]
Consonant imitation (part of model language) 15 CV syllables: 5 vowels (V) with 3 consonants (C): /b, d, g/ 465 15 × 15 Place of articulation; [44, 47]
Syllable imitation (model language: V, CV, CCV) 70 syllables: 5 V + 5 V with 9 single C: /b, d, g, p, t, k, m, n, l/ as CV + 5 V with 6 clustered CC: /bl, gl, pl, kl/ as CCV 600 25 × 25 Place and manner; voiced-voiceless; type of syllable; [36, 48]
Imitation of frequent syllables (real language) Standard German; 200 most frequent syllables;     
Male speaker; one realization per syllable 200 15 × 15 Stressed-unstressed; vowel type; [22]
   20 × 20 Same;  
25 × 25 Same;  
Female speaker; up to 27 realizations per syllable 703 25 × 25 Same; This study