Neural representation of a motor plan state for the German word “ist” (“is”). Top line: phonetic transcription of the word. Below: a 21 x 13 model neuron map (motor plan state map) representing the motor plan of that word/syllable. Vertical columns: 12.5 ms time intervals; horizontal rows: temporal location and duration of each vocal tract action. The degree of activation (white = no activation; to black = full activation) of a model neuron represents the degree to which an articulator has approached the appropriate vocal tract action target.